A detailed image of Pietro Vesconte’s world map

Why Early Cartography Doesn’t Work Well for Fantasy Maps

I got message in my inbox the other daaaaay…

“I’d love to see something from the Late Medieval or even Crusades period. Does the dearth of material from those eras prevent or make such a project more difficult? Are you simply uninterested?”

It’s a great question and one I’ve received several times in the last few years. The answer is longer and more complicated than it should be. We’re dealing with history and history is always messier than we’d like. Plus, I think it’s interesting enough that everyone will appreciate why I seem to ignore the Middle Ages’ maps in favor of later sources.

Also I blame Tolkien.

Strap in, cowpokes—I’m going history nerd on y’all.

Technology, Cartography, and Fan Expectations

We need to begin with technology. The proliferation of maps didn’t commence until after the printing press became ubiquitous. That’s why we have such an explosion of content after the 15th century. Before then, maps were all hand-made. Reproduction was difficult. You don’t find as many maps from those early eras, and often the maps you do find are reproductions done in a later style. That’s not to say they don’t exist, they’re just much different than the maps that came later, and they don’t correlate with what we think of as a map.

Then there’s the fan experience and the modern fan’s expectation. Fantasy maps serve a story, after all, and most fans want certain things from the map. Locations, distance, landforms, perhaps even enough to understand the climate. But the era of your typical fantasy novel is often set much earlier than the era of the printing press. (Yeah. Sure. It’s fantasy. And yeah, sure, you can fudge it.) But this is where it gets complicated.

In many ways, Tolkien is the one who set the expectation for fantasy fans. His famous map of Middle Earth, the one we all know and love, is more akin to cartography from the 16th, 17th, or 18th century than one from the Middle Ages. While it’s easy to point fingers, the reality is there is a good reason for his decision.

The art from the Middle Ages was weird.

Have you ever spent time looking at Western art from the Middle Ages at a museum? Notice how it’s always a little goofy? A bit off? Strange angles. Weird faces. There’s a flatness to everything. Eyes are looking in different directions. The artist had no idea what a cat looked like. The baby Jesus on Mary’s lap looks like a 34-year-old man. Camels look like horses and horses like goats. Trees are rendered oddly, and buildings are even odder. Art at this time was in its infancy and it’s like that with the cartography as well.

Let’s look at a few examples to see what I mean.


10th Century – Ende’s Map of the World – 975 A.D.

Most Western cartographers from the Middle Ages were monks, or in Ende’s case, a nun. The maps they made were often crafted alongside, or as a part of, “illumination” for religious manuscripts. Religious zeal tended to dominate many of those early Western works, making them almost useless as maps.

This “map of the world” is an excellent example of that fervor. It’s sparse, with more effort spent on the Garden of Eden cartouche than detailing the geography. It’s far different from the detailed maps we expect from our modern fantasy novels. Yet, the era it was created, the late 10th-century, is more often than not closer in era to our crafted fantasy worlds.


12th Century – Al-Idrisi’s Tabula Rogeriana – 1154 A.D.

During the 10th century, most of the progression in the science of geography and cartography was coming from the Middle East. Most of our modern understanding of mathematics and science is rooted in discoveries from the early Muslim world. Cartography is no different.

Muhammad al-Idrisi’s Tabula Rogeriana is one of my favorite pieces from those times and is largely considered the height of early Muslim cartography. While this work is rendered upside down, with North being at the bottom (not uncommon for Middle Ages work), the map itself is incredibly accurate—while scale is still being sussed out, it’s easy to spot recognizable landforms.

It’s also stunning.

Colorful mountain ranges dance across beige landforms, green lakes and seas drain into rivers, which in turn empty into the deep blue swaths of open ocean. It makes for a beautiful piece of history. While you can see the roots for the hill-profile style that would become the norm in later centuries, it’s quite different from maps we find in the opening pages of a novel. Everything here is a bit flashy, more like a painting—whereas, with later maps, engravers began using the symbols we expect. The map itself shifted in later years to become a tool for the commoner, not a piece of art for a fancy king named Roger.


13th Century – Matthew Paris’s Britain – 1259-ish A.D.

The other approach we find in the Middle Ages was more typographical. Take this 13th-century map of the British Isles from the Benedictine Monk Matthew Paris. It’s not bogged down in religious fervor the way Ende’s map was—but it’s also not as detailed as one would expect.

There are only a few signs and symbols, and much of the heavy lifting is done with text. Beyond the coastline, there is very little in the way of landforms. No flora is present. No mountains—well, maybe one mountain. Few rivers. And this is the 13th Century! We’re nearly three hundred years after Ende crafted her map, and still two hundred years before duel-beard wielding Johannes Gutenberg would invent his printing press. And etching—the process that rendered many of the maps that influence fantasy cartography today—wouldn’t show up on the scene until seventy-five years after that.

But you can see the origins of what was to come. You can see symbols begin to creep into the idea of a map. You can see where cartography is going.


I once read an article that compared these early maps to “storytelling” rather than representations of geography. This was undoubtedly the case in Western cartography during the Middle Ages. These maps serve to enforce a narrative. But beyond that narrative, most are unusable. They’re paintings. Piece of art. They’re not tools. We see more cartouches and illustrations than useful signs and representational symbols. This is why I avoid using these as a base. There aren’t enough signs to make a robust set, and the signs and symbols that exist are very limited. This is why early cartography and Middle Ages’ sources won’t make practical brush sets.

The Silver Lining

I don’t think all hope is lost. While it’s theorized to be a bit earlier than the Middle Ages, I think there’s potential for some sort of set to come from the Tabula Peutingeriana, an early map of the Roman Empire.

I’m not sure how effective it’d be from a landform-perspective, but there are so many variances in the Roman settlements that I could see it working for the right project. The trick will be finding a decent source, it’s been reproduced so many times and every time there are slight variations. Plus, I’ll need to dust off my High-School Latin before I tackle it.

There’s also an opportunity with some of Sebastian Münster’s or Girolamo Ruscelli’s work. It’s early as far as the hill-profile style goes, but it somehow feels older even though both are from the 16th century. The downside is most of the individual maps are fairly light in the number of symbols present, so I’ll need to pull from multiple sources. Unfortunately, neither did an outstanding job maintaining a uniform size with their signs or keeping line strokes consistent. Not impossible to overcome, but it is time-consuming.

In Conclusion

There are going to projects that will benefit from the earlier styles of cartography. The maps I shared are stunning and fantastic pieces of history. Creating in-era ephemera can add a level of authenticity to a story, and any of the pieces I shared would be great to replicate for the right project. But for those, I think proper illustration goes a lot further than trying to shoehorn brush sets into cartographic development. In those cases, one would be better off hiring an illustrator.

I design my brushes to help non-designers create period-authentic maps. For the vast majority of fantasy projects, I think mimicking the hill-profile style will satisfy fans. Tolkien chose it for a reason. It’s easy to wrap your head around and still feels properly antiquated even if it doesn’t precisely match era to era. It’s become the defacto fantasy style, and for a fantastical world, and you know what? That’s more than acceptable.


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Friday Link Pack 11/27/2015

Friday Link Pack 11/27/2015

It’s (Black) Friday (if you live in the US)! That means it’s time to either charge headlong into a frothing sales wasteland or kick back and enjoy my Friday Link Pack, the weekly post covering topics such as writing, art, current events, and random weirdness. Some of these links I mentioned on Twitter, if you’re not already following me there, please do! Do you have a link I should feature in the upcoming link pack? Click here to email me and let me know! (Include a website so I can link to you as well.) Let’s get to it…

WRITING:

American Dread: Alan Moore And The Racism Of H. P. Lovecraft
In the past, it was easy for me to dismiss Alan Moore as an eccentric, but lately I have come around to respecting him. He’s gotten more succinct in his stances, and I appreciate his approach to topics that would be considered taboo, subjects like racism, sexism, misogyny, and more. I think fiction is the perfect vehicle to explore these issues and allow readers confront their ugly realities. In this article, Bobby Derie examines all of this in relation to Alan Moore’s Lovecraftian series.

Hunter S. Thompson On Outlaws
The PBS Digital Studio (a fine example of why you need to be supporting PBS and your local PBS station) production Blank on Blank has been taking old interviews and animated them. This round it is gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson discussing his time with the Hells Angels.

#Writing More Than Ten Books In A Series And Staying Fresh
Thriller author Toby Neal has written more than ten books in her Lei Crime series and offers some practical advice for those looking to do the same and keeping things both engaging and fresh for readers and themselves.

Loved Girl on a Train? You May Have Read the Wrong Book
Another story about two novels with very similar names. Remember this recently happened with Emily Schultz’s literary fiction novel Joyland and Stephen King’s crime thriller Joyland, and it sparked the blog Spending Stephen Kings Money.

ART:

The Crusades And Lovecraft’s Monsters
In this series, fantasy cartographer and illustrator Robert Altbauer takes Lovecraftian horrors and applies them to a familiar medieval painting aesthetic. It’s hilarious and utterly charming. (I used one of these for today’s header image, but be sure to check out the rest.)

A Giant LED Star Pierces The Floors Of A 4-Story Building In Malaysia
I love neon and LED lights (Bell Forging readers can confirm this) so when I saw this awesome project from artist Jun Hao Ong I had to share it. There’s something about this project that is just so perfect.

Sticks and Stones (2014-Present)
Donna Pinckley takes pictures of interracial couples and places them alongside hateful racist things that had been said to them. The tenderness captured in this photos, combined with the juxtaposed vitriol forces us, the viewer, to confront the hate while facing couples that clearly love one other. As a result, this series serves as the perfect reminder of how far we have to go in society.

RANDOM:

The Hunt for Red October Gifs
Last Thursday I lamented the shortage of gifs from the film, The Hunt for Red October. Thankfully my friend Miguel stepped up, and now the internet is saved with not one… but six high-quality gifs for your use!

Law Enforcement Took More Stuff Than Burglars Did Last Year
Hmmm… who watches the watchmen?

Veronica Belmont On Being Overtaken By A Meme
Nobody knows what it is like when your persona is hijacked by a meme like Veronica Belmont. In this talk at this year’s XOXO Festival Belmont discusses her story, how time means nothing on the internet, and how it can quickly removes context leaving the viewer with a half understood story and little or no explanation. Very much worth a watch.

How Americans Changed The Meaning Of ‘Dream’
My favorite blog, Atlas Obscura, was sponsored by a mattress maker this week, and while that sounds odd… it’s actually produced some great articles centered around sleep. This one in particular, explores how a single idea can shift the definition of a single word.

WEIRD WIKIPEDIA:

List Of Unexplained Sounds
“The following is a list of unidentified, or formerly unidentified, sounds. All of the sound files in this article have been sped up by at least a factor of 16 to increase intelligibility by condensing them and raising the frequency from infrasound to a more audible and reproducible range.”

H.P. LOVECRAFT STORY OF THE WEEK:

Out Of The Aeons
A strange mummy is discovered on a mysterious island and put on display in a museum in Boston, but after several attempts are made to rob the corpse some bizarre things begin to happen.

GIF OF THE WEEK:

This Island Vincent